How Paper is Made

Whiting Paper Co., Holyoke, MA

one-half reams of newspaper, 20 x 30. In 1728 the first New England mill came into existence at Milton, Massachusetts, near Boston. By 1810 the number of mills in the United States had increased to nearly two hundred.

In the early days, when all paper was made by hand, five or ten reams a day were considered a fair product for one mill. Hand-making required a week to do what a machine accomplishes in a day. But qualities and effects can be obtained by hand which are impracticable by machinery alone, although in most respects the machine-made paper is distinctly superior.

When making by hand the workman took a "mold," consisting of a piece of fine wire cloth attached to a frame, and placed on it another frame called a "deckle," which formed a thin rim around the mold. Then he dipped the mold into the pulp, and the deckle served to retain just enough for a sheet of paper of the required thickness. A little shaking made the water drain speedily through the wire cloth, and, after the deckle had been removed, the mold was turned over so that the moist sheet of paper was transferred to a piece of felt. Successive sheets were similarly treated, and they were piled one on another alternating with pieces of felt until there was a pile of about half a dozen quires. This pile was put in a press, which forced out nearly all the moisture in the sheets of paper. The cloths were then removed, and, after more pressings and other minor operations, the paper was hung over poles in a drying loft. When dried, it resembled blotting-paper and could not be written on. A writing surface was obtained by dipping it in a weak solution of hot gelatine, after which it was pressed and dried. If glazing was required the sheets were passed between hot and polished iron rollers.

Modern paper-making may be said to date from the introduction of the Fourdrinier type of paper-machine about 1806. This machine causes an equal supply of pulp

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